Track 1: Understanding Urban Metabolism Virtual Room 3
Dec 09, 2020 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20201209T1600 20201209T1730 Europe/Amsterdam Track 1 | Session 2. Governance and Management

As a living body, our cities need regular and coordinated management in addition to the healthy development of all individual parts of the city. Session 2 is mainly aimed at the discussion of policy mechanism in urban metabolism. We will invite urban planners from South Africa, China, Ukraine, Nigeria, and other countries to share their experiences on sustainable urban renewal and urban construction. How to ensure the coordinated development of cities and other regions, how to stimulate the motivation of the market participation in construction under limited funds, and how to balance the relationship between government management and market means, are the questions that will be addressed within this Session.

Virtual Room 3 56th ISOCARP World Planning Congress, Virtual Congress

As a living body, our cities need regular and coordinated management in addition to the healthy development of all individual parts of the city. Session 2 is mainly aimed at the discussion of policy mechanism in urban metabolism. We will invite urban planners from South Africa, China, Ukraine, Nigeria, and other countries to share their experiences on sustainable urban renewal and urban construction. How to ensure the coordinated development of cities and other regions, how to stimulate the motivation of the market participation in construction under limited funds, and how to balance the relationship between government management and market means, are the questions that will be addressed within this Session.

From City Parks to Park-City: the Mechelen Case.View Abstract
Case Study Report 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
Today’s material flows are too wasteful. In order to get closer to achieving the climate goals we have to start optimizing these flows by integrating them. Current planning policies often persist in consuming too much (space) land coping with these flows as separate phenomena. To counter this policy we have to start creating multi-functional spaces—combining various functions / program that integrate and relate multiple flows. Inspired by promising design research—such as the Brainport Smart District project and the Regenvillages—this project explores the viability of integrated material flows and energy systems for pilot projects in the Belgian city of Mechelen. Mechelen is exemplary for many midsized European cities that find themselves located between a driving economic area such as the Antwerp port and the hinterland with patches of nature intertwining a less divers urban sprawl. The meandering perimeter that delineates this intertwined urban fabric serves as a membrane crucial for a healthy metabolism of the city nucleus. In a policy to densify cities this perimeter is often considered as a potential area of expansion. During these strategic expansions, however, the most defining role these areas play for the city’s vitality cannot be overlooked. To maximize the intentions in momenta of urban change in these areas, we pursue design research to investigate the scale and feasibility of strategic (pilot) projects that considerably improve the city’s metabolism. The primary goal of this study is to draw full attention of investors and policymakers to these crucial sites and their potential. This is why the Design Sciences Hub [DSH] of the Antwerp University together with the independent think tank TEAM CITIES conducts this research with the support of local authorities. Insights of what makes these projects fit for implementation will be used to progress the ongoing design research captured by the overall impetus: ‘From City Park to Park-Cities’. With Covid19 the challenge has gained actuality. For city residents, equitable access to local green space is more than a coronavirus-era amenity. It is critical for physical, emotional, and mental health, according to John Surico, journalist and urban planning researcher. The pandemic has highlighted the importance of publicly accessible green outdoor space. Sociologist and spatial expert Pascal De Decker underlines this importance and argues that if the city is no bigger than a balcony and a courtyard, the obligation to keep people in house makes city dwellers dream of the countryside. The architect Rem Koolhaas goes even further: ‘In the city, you are no longer the winner, but the loser—packed together too much. We have been too snobbish in the city. It is high time we look the other way.’ John Surico detects three key gaps in parks equity that cities will need to address: accessibility, funding, and space. The Brussels city architect, Kristiaan Borret states that the crisis can help us mitigating the densification hysteria, recognise the open space as an indispensable outlet, and make the city more crisis-resistant. By including more public space in our developments, we are also making the city more climate-robust. A green network, providing clean air and bio-diversity, as part of the metabolism of the city. This might be the momentum / tipping point to go from design research to implementation of multilayered districts with integrated material flows and energy systems. Links:
Sven Verbruggen
Professor, University Of Antwerp
Jan Bunge
Director, Squint-Opera
Sylvianne Van Butsele
Programme Director, DSH—University Of Antwerp
Urban energy performance calculation based on EPBD standards (MUSEGRIDS tool)View Abstract
Research Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
The implementation of energy policies with a view to reduce CO2 emissions poses specific challenges, especially to public authorities, who should define specific objectives, and evaluate the adequacy and impact of energy actions proposed. Nevertheless, an appropriate analysis is highly time-consuming due to the lack of tools. In this process, the first step is to establish the baseline energy status of the area of study. Only with this knowledge, in particular of the residential sector (main CO2 emissions contributor in cities), is it possible to plan for a low carbon economy. In this context, the MUSEGRIDS tool will support energy planners by matching energy needs to energy supply of the building stock at local scale. In this paper, the first step of the approach is explained: the attainment of the energy demand. This is calculated at building level, but then aggregated at other scales. To do so, publicly available data sources, building typologies (such as those coming from TABULA or the Building Stock Observatory), and reference data coming from Open Street Maps and INSPIRE-based data are deployed. This allows to automatically calculate hourly energy demand and consumption values based on the ISO 52000 standards family. By basing the proposed tool on Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) calculation standards specified in the Energy Performance Directive of Buildings (EPBD 2018/844/EU), in particular ISO 52016; the MUSEGRIDS tool achieves two main goals: it aids in the implementation of energy directives and energy actions by offering an easy to use tool to identify areas in need and, secondly, it promotes the EPBD, by making use of one of its main instruments to measure energy performance. The energy performance of buildings is calculated at a building scale, but then aggregated at coarser levels of detail, in order to enable different actors to complement their decision-making process in the most appropriate way. This is performed by exploiting publicly available data (from building typologies, open street maps or based on the INSPIRE Directive). Thus, based on this accessible-to-all approach it is argued how it could be replicated in a European context, as well as in a global context, and how the input data can be more or less accurate depending on this scope. The developed tool provides three main outputs: (1) GIS file with geo-located information for each building of a municipality in terms of energy needs (cooling and heating demand), DHW, energy per type of fuel, CO2 emissions per year; (2) the same information aggregated for all the building but disaggregated by time (per hour); (3) raster files with the same information mapped in a 100x100m2 grid. The tool has been evaluated and validated in different ways, and tested in three locations: Osimo (IT), Oud-Heverlee (BE) and Aranda de Duero (ES). In this process, failures in the combination of data sources, mapping, calculation process have been detected and also the accuracy of the results tested based on the comparison with real data. All in all, even when the tool has the ambition to be applied worldwide, the main barrier is the lack of completeness in the source data: both in terms of geometric and buildings identification data (from OSM and INSPIRE-based) or building characterisation data (e.g in Tabula-episcope for some countries or regions). The systematic and harmonised characterisation of buildings and their typologies would highly benefit this process and contribute to more robust decision-making in the field of energy performance in buildings.
Presenters Gema Hernández Moral
Fundación CARTIF
Víctor Iván Serna González
Fundación CARTIF
Francisco Javier Miguel-Herrero
Researcher, Fundación CARTIF
Cesar Valmaseda
Senior Research Scientist At CARTIF, Fundación CARTIF
An Assessment of the Approaches of Construction and Demolition Waste in Jos, Plateau State of NigeriaView Abstract
Research Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
The continues rise in population, urbanization and the expansion of cities have triggered an increase in construction and demolition activities not to mention the frequent collapse of buildings which are mostly attributed to decay or poor structural design and/or the use of substandard materials among other things. Considering the above, our cities must be planned in order to achieve functional, safe, convenient and livable urban spaces that work. The construction industry generates a substantial amount of rubble/debris known as Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D) from activities such as refurbishments, construction and reconstruction, rehabilitation of buildings, roads/bridges, drainage etc. Most studies have focused generally on solid waste management without considering the uniqueness of C&D wastes and giving it the attention that is needed. This study seeks to investigate the different approaches and processes of C&D waste management in Jos. The mix method was adopted for this research; data were collected through structured questionnaire and face-face interview with the agencies responsible for waste management in the city. A total of 21 construction companies (representing about 10%) were randomly selected for questionnaire administration while interviews were conducted with the agencies responsible for waste management in Jos. Investigations revealed that C&D wastes are heavy and non-degradable materials consisting of roofing sheets, sand, gravel, concrete, masonry, metal, wood to mention only but a few. Also all the construction companies are responsible for collection, storage, transporting and disposal of wastes generated from their activities, about 60-70% of the C&D waste are either reused/reduced, recycled or resell while the remaining are indiscriminately disposed. The Plateau Environmental Protection and Sanitation Agency (PEPSA) and the Jos Metropolitan Development Board (JMDB) are responsible for waste management in the state however, there is an absence of sustainable practices in C&D waste management in Jos hence no records on quantity of C&D waste generated, environmental and financial data nor policies and plans for that sector. It was therefore recommended that; government through the agencies should be involved in C&D waste management considering the growing construction and demolition activities in Jos by putting in place policies and guidelines that are sustainable and environmental- friendly. Keyword: rubble, construction and demolition, disposal, sustainable, waste, reduce and reuse.
Alice Bernard Benshak
Senior Lecturer, Plateau State Polytechnic Barkin Ladi, Jos
Moris Wetnwan Dabuahat
Plateau State Polytechnic Barkin Ladi.
Nkup Joseph Tanko
Lecturer, Plateau State Polytechnic Barkin Ladi, Jos
Veronica Yilret Nanle
Senior Lecturer, Plateau State Polytechnic Barkin Ladi, Jos
Research on the planning strategies of the city village reconstruction based on the concept of "Urban Regeneration" -- taking Haishu district of Ningbo China as an exampleView Abstract
Case Study Report 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
High-quality new urbanization and the construction of ecological civilization have put forward higher requirements for urban development, and solving a series of urban problems arising from such inefficient space as "city village " has become a key move to stimulate the vitality of urban development and achieve higher quality, more efficiency, more equitable and more sustainable development. Based on the concept of "urban regeneration ", this paper proposed three planning strategies as " intension regeneration "," space regeneration "and" mechanism regeneration "based on the regional function, resource elements and implementation mechanism, with a view to providing effective planning strategy guidance for the reconstruction of city villages in the new period and improving the scientific and operability of city village reconstruction. The 19th CPC National Congress of China put forward that the main contradiction of society has been transformed into the contradiction between the growing needs of the people for a better life and the unbalanced and inadequate development, while "village in city ", as a companion in the process of new urbanization and the change of town construction, is the short board of the city left by the rapid and extensive development of our country. As a programmatic document to guide the development of land and space, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council of China put forward new requirements for intensive and efficient leading to high-quality development, and strengthened the bottom-line constraints by delimiting all kinds of spatial control boundaries, which indicates that the development of land and space will move from incremental expansion to inventory revitalization, and the construction of urban land from development expansion to renewal and optimization. Under such an era background and development trend, the "regeneration" of inefficient stock space such as "village in city" becomes the key to alleviate the contradiction of unbalanced and inadequate development and strive to achieve higher quality, more efficient, more equitable and more sustainable development. The transformation of high-quality villages in cities is an important measure for Ningbo to implement the integrated development strategy of Yangtze River Delta and the "Four Major" construction goals of the Zhejiang province. It is also helpful to promote Ningbo to seize the major development strategic opportunities, improve urban function and optimize urban spatial pattern, accelerate the transformation of city from extension expansion to connotation promotion, so as to enhance urban quality construction and promote the integration of urban and rural development. Combined with the planning practice of urban village reconstruction in Haishu District of Ningbo City in China, this paper tries to explore the planning strategy of urban village reconstruction in the new period under the guidance of the concept of "urban regeneration ", in order to provide reference for similar planning practice in China.
Yonglong Mao
Urban Planner, Ningbo Urban Planning And Design Institute
Mindong Ni
Vice-director, Ningbo Urban Planning And Design Institute
Yifan Shi
Urban Planner, Ningbo Urban Planning And Design Institute
Assessing Land Use Efficiency to Enhance Urban Dynamics through City Development Strategy Case Study of Damietta City – EgyptView Abstract
Research Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
The complexity and dynamic of rapid urbanization causes many negative impacts on urban environment and decreases quality of life in our cities, producing cycled consequences from social, economic, environmental, urban, and institutional dimensions. Urban planning is unable to be an effective control tool, face current urban challenges, and achieve sustainable development. The paper highlights the importance of reformulate urban planning models and set “City Development Scheme” based on holistic view to the city as a system and produce strategies that target resource efficiency, to achieve effectiveness and sustainability. The land as an essential natural resource consumed during urban development process need to be more efficient planed, manage, and used by maximize the benefits and minimize all the negative impacts on the whole city system. So, the paper use the concept of “urban metabolism” to show the flow of consumed land during all stages of urban development process, and the dynamics changes of land uses through the whole life cycle of land development to identify pattern of inefficient resources allocation. The aim of the paper is propose measurement indicators for assessing “Land Use Efficiency” based on analyze the relation between sustainable development goal 11 and strategic urban development process, that identify the main specific urban “sectors, zones, and target actions”, then apply it to evaluate proposed actions on Damietta city development scheme for 2027 by using spatial (GIS) and statistical (SPSS) analytical tools. The selection of case study ”Damietta city” in Delta region at Egypt, related to two main reasons; the first one is the basics of setting city development scheme on system thinking approach which linked contacted urban-rural units in integrated vision and translate it into “spatial, social, and economic” objectives, and actions. The second one related the land properties which characterized by: high land value that outcome from diversity economic activities, and faces an accelerate rate of deterioration because losing of agriculture land, soil salting, and existence of flood risk zones. The main results from this research shows the benefits of using system thinking approach in setting “City Development Scheme”, which scale up our vision for the multi intersection city functions and offers deep understanding of hybrid interactive between all urban components that create dynamic changes in city system behavior all over the time. Also, defines the leverage points to achieve efficient proposed land uses in city development scheme, and determines the suitable strategies, policies, interventions that can help our cities to be more inclusive resilience and sustainable
Heba Soliman
Lecturer At Architecture Department - Faculty Of Engineering, Kafr El Sheikh University
Mohab El Refaie
Associate Professor At Department Of Urban Planning And Design - Faculty Of Engineering , Ain Shams University
Sustainable Development Strategy of Urban Metabolism in ChinaView Abstract
Research Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
In recent years, the deep-seated reasons for the shortage of resources and energy, the destruction of ecological environment, the decline of human quality of life and the low quality of economic growth in urban and regional development are the maladjustment of urban metabolism. As a complex and open organic dissipation system, one of the basic processes of city operation is metabolism. China has explored sustainable models of urban metabolism. On the one hand, the concept of re-ecology can be used to repair the damaged natural environment and landforms in cities and improve the quality of ecological environment. On the other hand, with the concept of renewal and darning, urban facilities, space environment and landscape landscape should be restored to enhance urban characteristics and vitality. Ecological restoration is mainly the repair of the kidney and lung of the city. First, carry out water system management and water ecological restoration, including ecological restoration of coastal waters and coastal zones, water system protection and water environment management (blue line management), natural wetland ecological restoration, and sponge city construction planning; Second, improve the green space system, including ecological red line demarcation and control, greenway network system connectivity and repair, inventory green space quality improvement and transformation; Third, soil pollution control, focusing on soil pollution control and remediation of agricultural land and land used by enterprises in key industries; Fourth, the mountain repair, mainly is to restore the mine green. Urban repair is the complement and improvement of urban shortcomings. First, the improvement of municipal infrastructure, including the construction of underground comprehensive pipe corridors and the renovation of old pipe networks in new and old urban areas according to local conditions; Second, we will improve public service facilities, including the 15-minute living circle, barrier-free facilities in the old city, day care centers for the elderly, and medical and health facilities at different levels and in different districts;Third, smart city construction, smart community, grid management, "the last kilometer" construction, etc;Fourth, to improve travel conditions, including road system repair, key areas traffic regulation, parking facilities, etc.; Fifth, the comprehensive renovation of old residential areas, strengthen the integration of contiguous old communities with the urban public service system and major projects, fill the gap in public service facilities, optimize and upgrade public space, and improve equalization of public services; Sixth, we will improve the planning system for the protection of famous historical and cultural cities, towns, villages and historical and cultural blocks, better continue the historical context, promote the renovation and upgrading of the surrounding blocks of historic and cultural blocks, and rationally protect and utilize industrial sites. In short, China's sustainable development strategy of urban metabolism is the summary of the cities across China adjust measures to local conditions for development, to matter and energy in the process of input and output in the city, and energy flow, material conversion, information feedback to optimize the urban compound ecosystem development, promote the urban metabolism process, reduce the material loss, stranded, omission or depletion, and the environmental problems.
Chengcheng LIU
Planning Research Center Of Tianjin Planning & Natural Resources Bureau
Planning for Resource Efficient Settlements by Augmenting Circular Urban Metabolism through Nature based Solution View Abstract
Research Paper 04:00 PM - 05:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/12/09 15:00:00 UTC - 2020/12/09 16:30:00 UTC
Realizing sustainable resource consumption and production patterns have always been a gargantuan challenge for our Indian settlements. The concept of Sustainable Resource Consumption and Production (as advocated by the UN Environment) has sought “decoupling of economic growth from environmental degradation”, favoured “resource efficiency” in production of goods and services and has eventually upheld human well-being and a better quality of life. However, accomplishing these noble intentions is at times difficult on account of a rather conventional and rigid linear metabolic archetype that is demonstrated in most of our urban settlements. Urban Metabolism in the words of Christopher Kenned is ‘‘the total sum of the technical and socio-economic processes that occur in cities, resulting in growth, production of energy, and elimination of waste.’’ The definition thus explores the interface between the socio – technical and the socio – ecological contexts, thus analysing the resource flows within the urban realm, both passive and active resources, the mechanisms that regulate the flow and their accessibility, the delivery of goods and services and the processes of waste assimilation. The Sustainable Development Goals 2030 further support this noble cause. The Circular Economy, on the other hand, as advocated by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, is ‘‘an industrial system that is restorative or regenerative by intention and design”. The concept emphasizes the need for ‘closing the loop’. The Circular Urban Metabolism (CUM) construct explores and underscores the tenets of reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery. Nature Based Solutions (NBS) that uphold the tenets of the CUM framework by conserving, restoring, rehabilitating and enhancing ecological infrastructure and supporting green infrastructure are the foundations for achieving Circular Urban Metabolism that enables delivery of ecosystem goods and services and promotes human well-being and better quality of life in the urban domain. The need for biodiverse and green roofs, vegetated urban spaces, water sensitive urban design, food forests and hydroponics and aquaponics are illustrations of regulation of material flow that offer resilience to the cities. This is realized through a plethora of policies, programmes and projects and potent regulatory framework. However, in order to implement these concepts in cities, they need to be mainstreamed with the urban planning process. In the current paper, the researcher had made a humble endeavour to explore the application of the concept through a thorough understanding of the Policy, Planning and Management Instruments that regulate the flow and use of passive and active resources across scales in the country and the existing Spatial Planning framework and the Master Planning Process in the national capital. Delhi, that supports a population of approximately 190 lakhs suffers enormously from unsustainable resource consumption and is plagued with pollution problems and issues of local water and food security. NBS, can enable closing the loop, minimize consumption of resources, reduce pollution, increase accessibility and availability and thus support human well-being and enhance biodiversity. The researcher has made an attempt to come up with strategies and guidelines that will enable the application of the concept.
Presenters Jayeeta Sen
Assistant Professor (On Contract), School Of Planning And Architecture , New Delhi
Saurav Sen
Senior Lecturer
Plateau State Polytechnic Barkin Ladi, Jos
Urban Planner
Ningbo Urban Planning and Design Institute
lecturer at architecture department - faculty of engineering
Kafr El Sheikh University
Planning Research Center of Tianjin Planning & Natural Resources Bureau
Assistant Professor (On Contract)
School of Planning and Architecture , New Delhi
+ 2 more speakers. View All
Dr Matej Niksic
Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia
Creative Director
BLOK 74 Urban Simulations | Urban Communications


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