Track 3: Planning for Urban Connectivity Virtual Room 3
Nov 10, 2020 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20201110T1200 20201110T1330 Europe/Amsterdam Track 3 | Session 1. Redefining Urban Connectivity from Network Planning to Local Design

This session tackles urban connectivity at two levels: the network - at the city level and the effects of it on the urban form - at the local level. Issues related to transport infrastructure, street patterns, the design of traffic and pedestrian flows, interchanges and intersections, TOD approaches, and land use around transportation HUBs are discussed. Quality of street space, the liveability of the adjacent areas, and permeability are presented. Finally, the session brings forward the question of using the street network by new types of public transport, such as metro buses and autonomous vehicles, revolutionizing travel behavior patterns, and mobility prospects.

Virtual Room 3 56th ISOCARP World Planning Congress, Virtual Congress congress@isocarp.org

This session tackles urban connectivity at two levels: the network - at the city level and the effects of it on the urban form - at the local level. Issues related to transport infrastructure, street patterns, the design of traffic and pedestrian flows, interchanges and intersections, TOD approaches, and land use around transportation HUBs are discussed. Quality of street space, the liveability of the adjacent areas, and permeability are presented. Finally, the session brings forward the question of using the street network by new types of public transport, such as metro buses and autonomous vehicles, revolutionizing travel behavior patterns, and mobility prospects.

Study on land-use around rail transit stations based on TOD theory Taking Wudaokou subway station in Beijing as an exampleView Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
With the rapid development of Beijing's economy and society and the continuous expansion of urban space, the improvement of urbanization level and the substantial increase of population have brought a series of urban problems, such as environmental pollution, traffic congestion, resource waste, etc. In this regard, the government proposes to vigorously develop public transport, especially to increase the construction of rail transit network to solve urban transport problems. transit-oriented development(TOD )mode is a land development mode dominated by rail transit. Through the mixed use of land, a good walking environment is established, so as to achieve the coordination of transportation and space. This paper analyzes the current situation and problems of Beijing's urban rail transit development, and concludes that Beijing's urban traffic problems are: the concentration of central cities leads to the excessive concentration of traffic flow; the shortage of land resources, the difficulty of traffic construction; the acceleration of the process of motorization, the aggravation of traffic energy consumption, the excessive block scale, and the lack of walking system. Based on the study of TOD mode and in-depth study of the theory of urban rail transit construction and the experience of rail transit construction at home and abroad, This paper summarizes the current situation of the traffic space, residential space, commercial space and recreational space around the west entrance of Qinghua East Road of Beijing Metro, and puts forward the redesign of the traffic space, residential space, commercial space and recreational space, so as to form a continuous pedestrian road, independent bicycle lane, public transport station with recreational facilities; change the residential square and road clutter in the front square of the residential area Disordered spatial structure; the pedestrian space at the track station is appropriately enlarged in combination with the commercial center as the connecting square; the multi-functional use of street corner space. I hope that the analysis of Wudaokou metro station under TOD mode can provide reference for others to do TOD theory for urban rail transit station planning.
Presenters
LX
LI Xin
Beijing Forestry University
Co-authors
ZC
ZHU Chunxi
ZY
ZHONG Yujia
Post-Soviet Street Patterns: Measuring Network Connectivity in the Largest Russian Cities View Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
The share of street network in the urban fabric and its connectivity are crucial characteristics of the cities’ spatial structure. Cities with properly developed and well-connected street network tend to be livable and productive. A growing body of research suggests that street network connectivity has the largest effect on walking of all the built environment features and significant effects on transit use and the amount of driving (Ewing and Cervero, 2010). The connectivity concept is widely researched and frequently applied in built-environment studies coming from the developed countries. Therewith, in Russia and other post-Soviet states it is not explored yet. There is no known attempt to examine the street connectivity in the context of post-Soviet spatial structure and to assess this quantitatively. The present study seeks to address the knowledge gap of the street network measures in Russian cities in order to draw attention to the concept of street connectivity and its potential in promoting healthy lifestyles and supporting vibrant environment. Many studies of the post-Soviet (or more broadly, post-socialist) urban structure highlight its peculiarities stemming from specific political and economic conditions under which it formed (Tosics, 2005). In Russian cities the Soviet period of urbanisation became the defining one and in many ways paving the way for future development, since it is during this period that the main city growth took place, both population and territory-wise. As an essential element of urban structure, the street network of the post-Soviet city also has characteristic features that do not correspond to other found in the world. The study includes analysis of such components of street network connectivity as street density, LAS (land allocated to streets), intersection density and the link/node ratio. The three main objectives envisaged by this research - examining the configuration of street network, measuring its specific features and exploring their interrelation - are accomplished by using the GIS tools and statistical methods. The empirical analysis of the street patterns is performed on a sample of the 13 largest Russian cities. The results reveal major dysfunctionalities in the post-Soviet street patterns: all the Russian cities covered in the present study have comparatively low values of all four calculated connectivity components that are crucially important for creating an efficiently laid out street network. The Russian cities have inherited the post-Soviet urban structure with underdeveloped street network. The low motorisation rate typical of the Soviet cities resulted in the extremely low share of street network in the urban fabric: the indicator LAS in the largest Russian cities is characteristic of the cities in the pre-automobile era and 2-3 times lower than in the European and North American cities. The values of other indicators calculated for the Russian cities are also significantly lower in comparison with their 'western' counterparts. This is partially explained by the fact that evaluating transport demand or perspectives of the motorization rate growth during the Soviet period were often substituted by the purely architectural and aesthetic considerations. While the estimations of the road density and connectivity show significant lag of the Russian cities in this area and confirm the necessity of the construction and transformation of the current street networks, city authorities should ensure that the investment in urban transportation infrastructure are made where they are most needed. The cities with post-Soviet street patterns need to invest in adequate and well-laid out street networks, paying special attention to the improvement of the network quality characteristics such as permeability and uniformity and increasing the density and connectivity of the network, especially on the periphery.
Presenters
ES
Ekaterina Saveleva
Senior Lecturer, Perm National Research Polytechnic University
Which urban development for Algiers far from oil dependency?View Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
The development strategy for the Wilaya of Algiers, defined in its Master Plan was approved in December 2016. The very principle of development in the territorial model already outlined a solution oriented towards the reorganization of traffic according to a principle of macro-mesh structuring a new poly-centrality. The localization of these new centralities was made on the basis of the old historical fabrics, scattered centralities but already loaded with a heritage and a considerable lived experience. At the nodes of this network, the place of these centralities, exchange hubs have been programmed. Thus, all the conditions are met so that in a second step, in terms of details, the city of Algiers can opt for a Transit-Oriented Development TOD that makes Algiers an attractive and competitive territory. By an analysis of the contents of the policy orientations of the PDAU (masterplan) of Algiers, a participative observation of the actions carried out by the city of Algiers, one will identify the goals already achieved and the risky deviations for the development strategy plan. One will also show that the TOD solution is the easiest if not the only one and that all the legal and strategic conditions are met to facilitate the transition to detailed development plans. First, one will highlight what were the challenges and the goals to achieve on the one hand and the ambitions displayed for Algiers because the two visions, on what the past requires and the future aspires to, contribute to the same prospective diagnosis with the following goals: - Zero downgraded agricultural land - Poly-centrality - Mobility - Urban renewal and densification - the territory as a resource instead of the oil rent - Rehabilitation and even development of the ecological structure - etc. Then we will discuss the the achievements of the project of Algiers 2035. In particular, the network of mobility at the scale of the territory and the creation of exchange poles (hubs) at the level of the nodes of this network. The hierarchy of these exchange poles has been rigorously detailed. All the conditions for transit-oriented development are already contained in the Algiers Masterplan. Finally, one will discuss why the transition from exchange hubs [1] to Transit-Oriented Development [2&3] and densification accompanied by a Pedestrian-Oriented Development [4] planning principle is the solution for a more competitive territory designed for a post-oil era. Algiers is in the process of launching detailed land use plan studies on the one hand and operations to set up exchange hubs on the other hand without reference to the regulations in force and this is very damaging for the future of Algiers. One will finally conclude on the need to think of sewing up the territory for a better use for pedestrians because the transport network in Algiers has currently fragmented the city into pedestrian sub-territories disconnected from each other’s. The need for a reweaving of the city by the principle of POD Pedestrian-oriented development is also a necessity. Cited references : [1] S. Amoroso, F. Castelluccio & N. Santoro “Sustainable mobility: “exchange poles” between transport networks and urban structure”, in The Sustainable City VII, Vol. 2 pp 955-966. WIT Press, 2012. [2] Calthorpe, P., The Next Americam Metropolis - Ecology, Community and the American Dream, Princeton Architectural Press: Canada. 1993. [3] Robert Cervero & Cathleen Sullivan (2011) Green TODs: marrying transit-oriented development and green urbanism, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18:3, 210-218, [4] Keith Bartholomew, Reid Ewing, Hedonic Price Effects of Pedestrian and Transit-Oriented Development, Volume: 26 issue: 1, page(s): 18-34. 2011.
Presenters Mohammed Boubezari
Researcher, ULHT - LUSOFONA - LISBON
Research on quantitative analysis method of street space quality evaluation——illustrated by the case of Wuhan City CenterView Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
With the continuous development of technical means, information technologies such as big data and AI artificial intelligence have gradually become one of the core technical means of planning and design. Using AI and big data to evaluate street space has also become one of the hot spots in recent years. However, there are few studies on the street space quality of Wuhan based on new technology, especially there is almost no evaluation system that combines planning technology and information technology. This article employs multi-source data that combines new technologies and traditional planning methods to evaluate the quality of street space, provides an analytical idea for street planning and construction, and thus guides the future evaluation of street-related implementation projects and street-related planning. This study uses big data, traditional planning data and current status survey data, combined with artificial intelligence, ArcGIS spatial analysis and spatial syntax and other analytical techniques, to propose a comprehensive index system for evaluating street space quality. This paper consists of index system construction, empirical research and results summary. The index system construction refers to the formula construction of the analysis model. Through project literature learning, investigation and research, several quantitative analysis indicators that are most suitable for evaluating the quality of Wuhan streets are selected to form a complete quality evaluation index formula. Empirical research is to select an area in the city center of Wuhan to conduct a case study on the quality evaluation index formula. Lastly, results summary refers to analysis and explanation of the final results, and summary of the research carried out according to the results along with technical problems and technical barriers in the analysis process. It should be particularly pointed out that in this paper, the research object at the material spatial level of street is defined as the following parts: main functional facilities, including motor vehicle lanes, bus lanes, motor vehicle parking belts, non-motor vehicle lanes and sidewalks, etc.; ancillary functional facilities, including street greening, street furniture, municipal facilities, isolation facilities, pedestrian crossings, and safety facilities, etc.; spatial interfaces, including facade shapes, colors, and ancillary facilities along the street. The data adopted mainly comes from street view image data of Internet map open platform, POI data of Internet open platform, traditional planning and design drawing data and current situation survey data.
Presenters
HY
Huihui Yan
Wuhan Panning And Design Institute
Co-authors
RH
Runzhi Huang
YG
Yunming Geng
Effect of Transport Infrastructure in changing the urban form of a historical city: A case study of LahoreView Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
Urban development and transportation are interrelated as transportation networks help in shaping the urban form along with supporting the social, cultural and economic growth of cities similarly infrastructure and superstructure of transportation networks are also shaped by city dynamics. Lahore, the cultural capital of the country, stands among the list of thirty most populated cities of the world and referred to as the major economic, political, transportation, entertainment and educational hub of Pakistan. Rapid industrialization, motorization, and expansion have resulted in pollution and traffic congestion. Consequently, the Punjab Government took the initiative of designing a rapid mass transit system for the city, with an aim to improve the accessibility, convenience, and ease of travel for a common man. The first section of the project i.e. Green line (Lahore Metrobus System) on Ferozpur Road has been working since 2013 while the second phase (orange line) is still under construction. As this was the first project of its kind, the impacts of the same on the adjacent built environment were missing. The adjoining urban form evolved sporadically in response to the changing transportation infrastructure, due to the absence of a proper supportive transit-oriented plan it took an ugly shape organically. This paper examines these upshots and complexities, giving a policy framework that can act as a remedial measure to avoid the repetitions of historical transit-related mistakes. It presents a detailed account of these changes by selecting eight bus stations of the Lahore Metrobus System (LMBS), which have dominantly changed their character due to intrusion of Metro bus. Before & after LMBS comparisons have been made with the help of site photographs and google earth images and the data is analyzed. Massive flyovers, excessive bridges, and stations are dominating the whole area thus making the urban form complex and, in some ways, visually obstructing. Although MBS has improved the overall accessibility of the masses, the peculiar character of this historical city Lahore was ignored during the planning and implementation stages of the project. Punjab Government should bring transport agencies, Punjab Mass Transit Authority (PMA), investors, developers, and people together for joint development policy to enhance revenue and ridership of Metrobus towards one end and to move towards Transit-oriented Development (TOD) containing retrofitting, regeneration and re-densification of recognized urban cores and promoting the compact, transit-oriented urban expansion on the other. As this was the first line among the seven similar proposed by JICA so these findings will not only be useful for future lines in Lahore & other cities of Pakistan but also for other developing countries seeking to adopt mass transit systems. Keywords: Lahore Metrobus Service (LMBS), Rapid Mass Transit System, Transport Infrastructure, Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), Urban Form.
Presenters Ayesha Anwar
PhD Scholar, Harbin Institute Of Technology (HIT)
Co-authors
LH
Leng Hong
Professor, Harbin Institute Of Technology
AR
Afia Zubair Raja
Assistant Professor, University Of The Fraser Valley
Autonomous vehicles and smart cities: future directions of ownership vs shared mobility.View Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
Over the last decade, there has been increasing discussions about self-driving cars and how most auto-makers are racing to launch these products. However, this discourse is not limited to transportation only, but how such vehicles will affect other industries and specific aspects of our daily lives as future users such as the concept of work while being driven and productivity (Pendleton et al., 2017), entertainment (Atzori et al., 2018), travel speed (Kröger et al., 2018) and deliveries (Alessandrini et al., 2015). Although these technologies are beneficial, access to these potentials depends on the behaviour of their users. There is a lack of a conceptual model that elucidate the acceptance of people to Self-driving cars (Nordhoff et al., 2016). Service on-demand and shared mobility are the most critical factors that will ensure the successful adoption of these cars. This paper presents an analysis of people's opinions through a questionnaire about the future of Autonomous vehicles' ownership and the extent to which they accept the idea of vehicle sharing. Besides, this paper presents a logistic regression analysis to test two hypotheses. Firstly, (a) people who usually use Public transportation like (taxi, bus, tram, train, carpooling) are likely to share an Autonomous Vehicle in the future. Secondly, (b) people who use Private cars are expected to own an Autonomous Vehicle in the future. To achieve this aim, a combination of statistical methods has been utilised as well. Unexpectedly, the study findings suggested that AVs ownership will increase contrary to what is expected, that Autonomous vehicles will reduce ownership. Besides, participants have shown low interest in sharing AVs. Therefore, it is likely that ownership of AVs will increase for several reasons as expressed by the participants such as safety, privacy, personal space, suitability to children and availability. This study represents the findings of a survey conducted in Nottingham, UK. Actions must be taken to promote shared mobility to avoid AVs possession growth. The ownership diminution, in turn, will reduce traffic congestion, energy and transport efficiency, better air quality. As a result, analysing the factors that influence the mindset and attitude of people will enable us to understand how to shift from private cars to transport-on-demand which is a priority rather than promoting the technology (Grush & Niles, 2018).
Presenters Nacer Eddine Bezai
LECTURER/ PhD Student, Nottingham Trent University
MC
Moulay Chalal
Nottingham Trent University
Co-authors
BM
Benachir Medjdoub
Nottingham Trent University
Fodil Fadli
Head Of Department, Qatar University
AA
Amin Al-Habaibeh
Nottingham Trent University
Replicable Resilient School Entrance Space Design of “Jiangsu Provincial Exemplary Livable Community”View Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
Background In 2019, Jiangsu started the “provincial exemplary livable community” programs. As one of them, located in Qixia District of Najing, “Yaofangmen provincial exemplary livable community” aims to lead the residents in to the mutual creation of the livable community widely. During the planning process, we deeply cooperated with the sub-district administrative office, and there exposed a serious congestion and anxious problem around the school entrance of Qixia experimental primary school on Yaohexi Road. Half-an-hour contradiction From 3:30 to 4:00 p.m. before the school ended, Yaohexi Road is extremely congested with cars, scooters and pick-up parents. Due to the lack of effective traffic control, the traffic condition is in a mess and thus formed a crowded and dangerous pick-up space in front of the school’s main gate. Under the Chinese intergenerational parenting culture, the grandparents usually undertake the task of picking their kids up to ensuring their safety. During waiting time before the school ends, the olds expressed their urgent need for a simple sitting tool and the need to chatting with other parents. However, on this 16m-wide branch road, except the carriageway, there only has an intermittent sidewalk narrower than 1m. Under such extreme tense street space and resource, to solve the pick-up anxious become the starting point of this design. Resilient and intensive solutions (1) Resilient traffic control Reopen the secondary gate: open the secondary entrance from 3:30 to 4:00p.m, so as to diverse part of the students to the secondary gate to relieve the congestion inside the school, assigned the teachers to arrange the students’ route from the classroom to the gates and guide them in order. Resilient lift pile: set lift piles on the road section between the two gates, in order to ensure the walking safety of the pedestrians during the pick-up time. However, the time period of pile’s lifting need to be precisely controlled, so as to ensure the minimum effect on the urban traffic flow. (2) Modular integrated wall design near the school entrance The second step is to fully make use of the walls close to the school gate intensively, to conduct a modular and integrated reconstruction wall design is our design solution. Directed at the users of olds and juveniles, after studied their physical and mental characteristics, we proposed various wall modules, including “retractable seats”, “information board”, and “wall library”, to meet their basic needs. Furthermore, “family mailbox” wall module is also designed to lever the fusion of family-school education. (3) 24-hour compound use of the school entrance space Delimitate the boundary of the available public spaces in and out of the school entrance and then control the opening and closing of the school gate, according to the rules of residents’ daily routines in this community. The purpose is to transfer the micro public space into “second classroom”, “childhood theater”, “square dance Park”, so as to finally achieve the 24-hour compound use of micro space on the community level. Provincial generalization To solve these commonly existed pick-up problems in front of the primary schools in Jiangsu, efforts are made in stratification in our proposal. The modular integrated wall design has the features of low- cost, easy-operation and free selection, which can adapt to different school budget. The resilient traffic control and time-sharing gate control, which fully attached to the existed resources, can flexibly adjust itself to different school entrance situations, and meanwhile save the public resources. Finally the people centric design concept, can better lever the stakeholders’ and the government’ initiative, to together create the livable community.
Presenters Sijia FAN
Intermediate Level Planner, Jiangsu Institute Of Urban Planning And Design
Wuhan Panning and Design Institute
Beijing Forestry University
Senior lecturer
,
Perm National Research Polytechnic University
Researcher
,
ULHT - LUSOFONA - LISBON
PhD Scholar
,
Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT)
+ 2 more speakers. View All
Dr Serin Geambazu
Senior urban planner, EU projects- project manager, lecturer
,
Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urban Planning & Urbasofia
Self Employed
senior landscape architect
,
jasmax

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