Track 1: Understanding Urban Metabolism Virtual Room 2
Nov 10, 2020 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM(Europe/Amsterdam)
20201110T1200 20201110T1330 Europe/Amsterdam Track 1 | Session 1. Spatial and Functional Reorganisation of City

Session 1 addresses the adjustment of the existing urban settlements and other built environments, namely their spatial and functional structures, to better incorporate the concepts of urban metabolism and resources management, while strengthening the economic performance as well as quality of life. 

Among others it will shed light on the questions of the role of compact urban form to reduce CO2 footprint, reconceptualisation of construction and demolition waste stream, rethinking of the urban and architectual structures to ensure food security and reduction of food waste, and the conceptual parallels between the urban metabolism and the processes related to human body. 

In methodological terms it will address the issues of appropriate statistical data on the physical, functional as well as financial aspects of the city to accelerate the urban metabolism application in practice. The session will address the cities of different sizes-from small to medium and large cities in various geographical locations around the globe-and the presenters will take us to regions and towns of China, the city of Jos in Nigeria, Russia's St. Petersburg, and Qatar.

Virtual Room 2 56th ISOCARP World Planning Congress, Virtual Congress congress@isocarp.org

Session 1 addresses the adjustment of the existing urban settlements and other built environments, namely their spatial and functional structures, to better incorporate the concepts of urban metabolism and resources management, while strengthening the economic performance as well as quality of life. 

Among others it will shed light on the questions of the role of compact urban form to reduce CO2 footprint, reconceptualisation of construction and demolition waste stream, rethinking of the urban and architectual structures to ensure food security and reduction of food waste, and the conceptual parallels between the urban metabolism and the processes related to human body. 

In methodological terms it will address the issues of appropriate statistical data on the physical, functional as well as financial aspects of the city to accelerate the urban metabolism application in practice. The session will address the cities of different sizes-from small to medium and large cities in various geographical locations around the globe-and the presenters will take us to regions and towns of China, the city of Jos in Nigeria, Russia's St. Petersburg, and Qatar.

Hinterlands of Budget Air TravelView Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
Of the 3,102,128 passengers flying in and out of Berlin-Schönefeld airport every month (Brandenburg "Traffic Statistics" 2019), how many are aware of the network of actors and infrastructure behind the scenes enabling this action? In this paper, we follow Jet A1 aviation fuel's journey from its source to its point of use and shine a light on the infrastructures, actors, and urbanities facilitating it and being affected by it. Berlin's growth as a tourist destination and as an attractive, cosmopolitan city correlates with an explosion in budget air travel across Europe over the last two decades. That is a result of the synergetic relationship between Berlin, its airports, the tourist industry, and the oil industry. Both airports are served by a refinery from the GDR-era city Schwedt/Oder, which is strategically developed on the Polish border, where the Soviet Druzhba (Friendship) pipeline meets with Europe. Once functioned as a ''hinterland and nominated as ideal 'socialist city,' today's Schwedt has been steadily shrinking. The monofunctional environment of pragmatic industrial urbanism is to blame, the proving that 'the non-city' is no longer exterior to the urban but a basic terrain of capitalist urbanization (Brenner 2016 p. 125). The word hinterland refers to places that are usually out of sight for city dwellers. In "The Hinterland Urbanised?" Neil Brenner criticizes vocabularies for describing non-city spaces, such as rural, countryside, and hinterland, as being "locked into an externalist framework that attempts to distinguish them, analytically and spatially, from the city" (2016 p. 125). Furthermore, Schmid and Brenner, define the term planetary urbanism to describe a "disintegration of hinterlands" as our urban networks and urban support systems sprawl beyond traditional city boundaries into former wildernesses and across borders (2012). This paper investigates the oil infrastructures, as intersections of trans-territorial networks systems of power and their exchange with local practices: the journey of Jet A1 aviation fuel from crude oil extraction in Russia, distillation in Schwedt, eastern Germany, to refueling off the aircraft by tanker truck sits source to its point of use. A case study focuses on urbanism dynamics of Schwedt, as an attempt to trace part of the planetary urbanism corresponding to Berlin's growing tourist industry's use of jet fuel. The first part of the research centers on the networks of oil landscapes -the industrial footprint of oil: its transformation, storage, and transportation. Further provides a depiction of 'what constitutes aviation fuel and its production network' to have a clear view of the actors involved in the process, the links between them, and the spatial implications. The second part addresses how aviation fuel has impacted Berlin and Brandenburg's hinterland: primarily, Schwedt, a shrinking city despite Berlin's recent boom, where the size of the traditional urban "city" form is diminutive in scale compared to the adjacent PCK oil refinery's "non-city" form of urbanization. The findings of the study present new ways of interpreting and mapping the metabolic vehicles of planetary urbanization in both architectural and urban scales. Harvey, David. "Globalization and the “Spatial Fix”." Geographische Revue (2001): 23-30. Print. Brenner, Neil. "The Hinterland Urbanised?" Architectural Design 86.4 (2016): 118-27. Print. Brenner, Neil, and Christian Schmid. "Planetary Urbanisation." Urban Constellations. Ed. ed., Matthew Gandy. Vol. Berlin: Jovis, 2012. Web. Blau, Eve, and Ivan Rupnik. Baku - Oil and Urbanism. Park Books, 2019. Print.
Presenters
TB
Tunca Beril Basaran
Master Student, Technical University Berlin
CK
Christina Krampokouki
TU Berlin
SW
Simon Warne
RP
Rosa Catalina Pintos Hanhausen
The post-oil city as transition to what comes after: Imbuing Urban Green Deals with architectural value.View Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
The purpose of this paper is to provide a contribution to evolving the human urban environment, which the city represents, through understanding the post-oil period as transitional toward a new paradigm. This paper interweaves post-oil transition, the urbanity of the city, and architectural value and the practice of its provision. It describes a transformational moment enabled by the ‘post-oil’ period, whereby ‘post-oil’ is understood as counter to the use of oil and not yet the period that will follow. The end of mineral oil energy and material indicates such a change, which climate change, biosphere collapse and the vulnerability that the 2020 pandemic, which is crushing the economy so simply, signal to us. City is proposed as an intensity of urbanity, while urbanity extends around the globe. Supplying the city with resources extends over the horizon, deep into the ocean and perhaps soon into space. The web of urban connectivity is global, but the character, depth and breadth of non-city urban is often not considered. The words ‘city’ and ‘urban’ are commonly used interchangeably, tacitly opposing urbanity-as-city to the rest of the world. All the land, nature and its life is urbanized through technological valuation as quantification and narrowly appropriated qualities; the urban is ubiquitous state of dwelling in the world. This ubiquitous state is based on parameters that do not comprehend what cannot be asked as a scientific question. What cannot be addressed becomes exterior to, or concealed in, our culture. Urbanity is part of this thinking. Nature’s reality eludes the technological urban-encoded landscape. The unspoken, un-integrated and concealed aspects of world include almost everything that makes us human, such as questioning nature’s not-systems and purpose, the source and nature life, love, consciousness and its purpose. Architecture was part of humanity long before our present machine ages mineral hydrocarbon and electricity based economy. Today's technology has evolved from its antecedent forms and it must change again. Conceptual project-based thinking of architectural practice to facilitate the provision of architectural value, informing any scale in the world-as-urban, comprehends the limit of technological urbanism. This paper engages the ‘Understanding Urban Metabolism’ track’s terms of approach to support “continuous improvement of urban material, environmental, social and economic conditions” by “leveraging improving the urban quality and efficiency” in terms of resolving specifically: “separation of urban functions (1), low environmental quality (2) , unequal development (3) or insufficient support for urban renewal (4)”. Accepting the possibility of a future after-technological transformation, we develop these 4 elements to express leveraging cities’ “metabolic quality and efficiency” in terms of architectural value, developing them as an architectural project to form a path toward well being of human conscious aspiration beyond mere health and psychological wellness. Human being is essentially without limits. We question what that means with an interdisciplinary range of practical approaches in philosophy, architecture, planning, and spirituality in its positive sense of wonder and discovery. This paper concludes how the post-oil city is potential for the cooperative whole of city elements (1), defining high quality as architectural value that translates acquisitive quantified economic value to architectural value that gives measure to well being and daily life satisfaction (2), to support socially integrated purpose (3) for investment in urban environments (4). Urban Green Deals may become environmental and social threshold events of greater and transformational technological change.
Presenters Michael Karassowitsch
Professor, Acting Design Chair, VIT Vellore School Of Planning And Architecture
Mitigating post-oil sustainability challenges in a topographically framed transit-oriented cityView Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
A distinct environmental setting of the naturally elongated city of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina stimulated its historical development in a constant transit-oriented manner despite its frequent and diverse regime shifts, planning practices and periods of war destruction. Topographically conditioned natural processes along with anthropogenic factors contributed to increasing challenges to urban sustainability. With Sarajevo in the top ranks, the country’s alarming level of air pollution was rated number one in Europe in 2019 with an annual average of 40,9 µg/m3 of PM2.5 (IQAir, 2020). The emergence of high-rise development without proper long-term planning strategies largely contributes to smog retention as a recent study on ventilation corridors in the city has shown (EBRD, 2019). As in many Southeast European cities over the last few decades, Sarajevo is dealing with an urban sprawl generated by the development of informal settlements (Tsenkova, 2012). These represent the dominant developments on surrounding hillsides around the city, accessible mainly by vehicle transportation, creating an aggravating factor on infrastructure, air quality and future development. Current practice in mitigating these challenges are scarce and often obstructed by adverse political agendas. The border of two uncooperative and structurally different governing Entities stretches alongside the city and hinders a unified long term regulation plan. The main research approach of this paper is based on grounded theory and case studies of cities with similar elevation variations. The paper establishes two main challenges to a sustainable urban development for a valley-based city in air quality and transportation. It elucidates sustainable urban planning opportunities in an oil-depleted future of Sarajevo while dealing with the given circumstances of urban disengagement and infrastructural pressure of the peripheral hillside developments and the urgent vertical growth restrictions in the valley, by providing conceptual solutions for urban integration of the largely informal settlements through cable propelled modes of transportation and heat source re-evaluation.
Presenters
TT
Tijana Tufek-Memisevic
Candarc LLC
ZR
Zina Ruzdic
Research Fellow, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology
Impact of Urban Compactness on Carbon Emission Efficiency in Small Towns in ChinaView Abstract
Research Paper 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
Maintaining a balance between economic development and carbon emissions reduction is an important part of low-carbon development in modern cities. At present, the positive effect of urban compactness on carbon emission efficiency has been demonstrated in large cities, but few studies have been carried out on small towns. Small towns are an important part of China’s urban system, accounting for 70% of the total population and 60% of the national GDP. Most small towns in China still promote economic growth and enhance the social welfare of residents by large-scale urban construction, which inevitably leads to urban expansion and high carbon emissions. How to reduce carbon emissions by optimising urban form while continuing with economic development and maintaining people’s welfare has become an important issue faced by small towns in China. To guide the low-carbon planning of small towns, it is necessary to understand the relationship between urban compactness and the economic benefit and social-welfare levels associated with the carbon emissions in small towns. This study uses remote-sensing and panel data to quantitatively analyse the relationship between urban compactness and CO2 emission efficiency (including CO2 economic efficiency and CO2 social efficiency) in small towns in China from 2008 to 2017. From the rank of the latest Top 100 Counties of China (2019) (Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, NBS), 10 small towns were selected for their different economic development levels. The calculation of urban compactness was performed on the software FRAGSTATAS 4, using parameters of patch density (PD), landscape division index (DIVISION) and splitting index (SPLIT). CO2 economic efficiency (CEE) is expressed as the ratio of GDP to total CO2 emissions, and CO2 social efficiency (CSE) is expressed as the ratio of the regional Human Development Index (HDI) to total CO2 emissions. The HDI is evaluated by the average number of students per 1,000 inhabitants, the average number of doctors per 1,000 inhabitants, the green area per capita, the area of public facilities per capita, and the disposable income of the residents. In addition, a method to calculate carbon emissions based on end-use energy is proposed to overcome the problem of incomplete statistics of carbon emission data in small towns. This study resulted in four main findings. (i) There is a positive correlation between urban compactness and CEE, but no obvious correlation with CSE. In general, compact urban policies have a positive impact on improving the CO2 emission efficiency in small towns in China. However, a various of socio-environmental issues caused by high compactness ratio are detrimental to CSE. (ii) The CEE and CSE both show an upward trend over the period 2008 to 2017. (iii) The effect of urban compactness on urban CO2 emission efficiency is significantly affected by the level of economic development. The higher the per capita GDP of small towns, the greater the impact of compactness on urban CO2 efficiency. (iv) The relationship between GDP and carbon emissions in small towns did not reach an ideal state, the economies of small towns in China are still strongly dependent on carbon emissions. Furthermore, little difference exists between the level of carbon emissions calculated by the method proposed in this paper and the open data of regional energy statistics, which indicates that the method is accurate. This work has one limitation. Due to the differences in economic development caused by location, most small towns in this study are located in south-eastern China. Future studies should therefore explore the relationship between urban compactness and carbon emission efficiency in small towns in different regions.
Presenters
RG
RAN GUO
School Of Architecture, Harbin Institute Of Technology; Key Laboratory Of Cold Region Urban And Rural Human Settlement Environment Science And Technology, Ministry Of Industry And Information Technology
Co-authors
QY
Qing Yuan
School Of Architecture, Harbin Institute Of Technology;Key Laboratory Of Cold Region Urban And Rural Human Settlement Environment Science And Technology , Ministry Of Industry And Information Technology
Anatomy of the CityView Abstract
Case Study Report 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
The project addresses the problem of replacing inconsistent and harmful practices of city planning by a balanced approach for sustainable development of the cities. The original methodology of the Anatomy of the City presented in this case is a new urban planning language that is easy to understand by different actors and has potential for creating diverse professional communities for the social good. The case study explains the methodology and presents its practical implementation in a master plan for development of a post-industrial territory in Saint-Petersburg, Russia with a total area of more than 4,000 ha. In the course of its history Saint-Petersburg has witnessed different contradicting approaches: from private land and development to mass state-sponsored social housing construction. The present situation is affected by this disrupted tradition, inefficient planning and the urban sprawl without sufficient infrastructure. The solution we propose is to treat the city body as a complex living organism similar to a human body, including the society and social interactions (soul and energy), engineering system (internal organs), transport (structure and skeleton), city management (nervous system) and architecture (muscles). We present a detailed city development plan for the chosen area with consideration of all the essential aspects, as well as a tool for diagnostics of healthy city development and creating dynamic digital models.
Presenters Ilya Zalivukhin
Founder And CEO, Jauzaproject
Food, Energy, Water and Waste management innovation in an urban context: a Qatar University Campus approachView Abstract
Case Study Report 12:00 Noon - 01:30 PM (Europe/Amsterdam) 2020/11/10 11:00:00 UTC - 2020/11/10 12:30:00 UTC
Climate change, population growth, and economic development1 make the need for a sustainable FEW Nexus more urgent than ever since the demand for food, energy and water is increased. Urban communities are very vulnerable in the coming changes as 66% of the total population will be urban by 20506 and food security is crucial. In Qatar, a hot and arid country with limited freshwater availability and 99.1% of the total population being urban4, the need for a sustainable nexus is timely than ever. Food security is also a national priority for the State of Qatar, in line with Qatar Vision 2030. Food waste is another big challenge to tackle, as 30% of the total food produced worldwide gets lost or wasted throughout the food chain with respected losses in inputs3 and yet, 795 million people are malnourished2. Urban agriculture could be the key solution to the nexus with effective use of water and energy, new food crops and application of circular economy in the management of organic wastes. This research project abstract is part of the ‘’Moveable Nexus: Design-led Urban Food, Water and Energy Management Innovation in New Boundary Conditions of Change’’ Belmont Forum Project, led by Qatar University and funded by Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF). The short title M-NEX is the acronym of the key concept ‘’the Moveable Nexus’’. The project’s goal is to develop an integrated design methodology and Moveable Nexus that links complex location-specific FEW problems at the architectural, urban, and regional scales. The Moveable Nexus is a participatory design support platform mobilizing natural and social resources by integrating multi-disciplinary knowledge and technology7, which will be implemented by Living Labs in different regions. The M-NEX Doha Living Lab will attempt to design and develop productive and sustainable food systems that increase food security, enhance nutrition and strengthen resilience5. In Qatar, the Doha Living Lab will be implemented at Qatar University Campus, an urban community of over 20.000 students and 1.000 faculty and staff members. The Living Lab facilities will include a production site composed of a greenhouse, an open-field plot and composting units to sustainably manage the organic waste generated within the Campus. Traditional crops and new food crops will be tested, using cultivation methods with effective water use and using the produced compost in open field cultivation plots. Moreover, local stakeholders and the whole QU Community will be actively engaged and participate in various farming practices at the production site. The community members will develop a long-standing knowledge of how to produce, harvest, postharvest manage and store food, acquiring important agricultural production skills, which can be transferred from them to other generations as well, strengthening resilience among people and food systems. University Campuses are urban communities that can be referred to as mini-cities, since the need for food, energy and water is big and they generate waste. Any successful applications and solutions tested on the campus can be applied later on a bigger scale. Besides, the Moveable Nexus can be transferred to different bioregions on shared design principles, co-creative methodology and cybernetic technologies.
Presenters
TK
Theodora Karanisa
Research Assistant, Qatar University
Co-authors
IS
Imen Saadaoui
Research Assistant Professor, Qatar University
HH
Helmi Hamdi
Research Assistant Professor, Qatar University
NF
Noora Fetais
Assistant Professor, Qatar University
SS
Sami Sayadi
Research Professor, Qatar University
Master student
,
Technical University Berlin
School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology; Key Laboratory of Cold Region Urban and Rural Human Settlement Environment Science and Technology, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology
Founder and CEO
,
Jauzaproject
Research Assistant
,
Qatar University
+ 1 more speakers. View All
Dr Matej Niksic
reseracher
,
Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia
Master Degree Student
,
Politecnico di milano
senior landscape architect
,
jasmax
Miss Ayaa Almahal
Independent researcher
,
-

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